SinglePhoton Source
A SinglePhoton Source (SPS) is any system able to emit photons one by one. The typical measure of that is antibunching.
This problem is one of our research topics, as the particular case ($N=1$) of our multiphoton emission research.
We have provided a concept for a perfect single photon source^{[1]} which, as opposed to the commonly accepted criterion $g^{(2)}(0)=0$, demands that $g^{(2)}(\tau)=0$ for all $\tau$ in a time gap. This has the unsuspected consequence that this produces bunching oscillations, which mark the onset of photonordering similarly to what happens when a gas liquefies, as we discuss in Ref. _{[2]} where we further provide a mechanism for a full family of increasingly better SPS, with $g^{(2)}(\tau)$ function given by the elegant formula:
$$g^{(2)}_N(\tau) = 1 + \sum_{p=1}^{N1} z_N^p \exp\big( \gamma (1z_N^p)\tau\big)$$
with
$$z_N\equiv\exp\left({2i\pi\over N}\right)$$
the $N$th roots of unity.
When not striving for perfection, we have shown how twophoton suppression can be realized from admixing squeezed states with coherent states^{[3]} and, more importantly, how such an understanding allows to realize joint subnaturallinewidth singlephoton emission.^{[4]} The underlying mechanism was generalized to a broad range of quantum emitters in Ref. _{[5]}. This was confirmed experimentally by Hanschke et al.^{[6]}
We also described the main and most widespread system for singlephoton emission (a twolevel system driven coherently and/or incoherently), as well as the loss of its antibunching, in Ref. _{[7]}.
Systems
With (what we believe is) first report:
 Atoms^{[8]}
 Trapped ions^{[9]}
 quantum dots^{[10]} (see also _{[11]}, _{[12]})
 Single molecule^{[13]} (see also _{[14]}, _{[15]})
 NVcenters^{[16]}
 defects
 superconducting qubits
etc.
NV centers are one of the many luminescent defects in diamonds. An NV center is formed by replacing one carbon atom from the crystal with a nitrogen N atom as well as a vacancy V (missing atom, or hole) at an adjacent lattice position; whence the name (NitrogenVacancy center).
See also
References
 ↑ Perfect singlephoton sources. S. Khalid and F. P. Laussy in Sci. Rep. 14:2684 (2024).
 ↑ Photon liquefaction in time. Eduardo Zubizarreta Casalengua, Elena del Valle, Fabrice P. Laussy arXiv:2312.17732 (2023).
 ↑ Tuning photon statistics with coherent fields. E. Zubizarreta Casalengua, J. C. López Carreño, F. P. Laussy and E. del Valle in Phys. Rev. A 101:063824 (2020).
 ↑ Joint subnaturallinewidth and singlephoton emission from resonance fluorescence. J. C. López Carreño, E. Zubizarreta Casalengua, F.P. Laussy and E. del Valle in Quantum Sci. Technol. 3:045001 (2018).
 ↑ Conventional and Unconventional Photon statistics. E. Zubizarreta Casalengua, J. C. López Carreño, F. P. Laussy and E. del Valle in Laser Photon. Rev. 14:1900279 (2020).
 ↑ Origin of Antibunching in Resonance Fluorescence. L. Hanschke, L. Schweickert, J. C. López Carreño, E. Schöll, K. D. Zeuner, T. Lettner, E. Zubizarreta Casalengua, M. Reindl, S. Filipe Covre da Silva, R. Trotta, J. J. Finley, A. Rastelli, E. del Valle, F. P. Laussy, V. Zwiller, K. Müller and K. D. Jöns in Phys. Rev. Lett. 125:170402 (2020).
 ↑ Loss of antibunching. J. C. López Carreño, E. Zubizarreta Casalengua, B. Silva, E. del Valle and F. P. Laussy in Phys. Rev. A 105:023724 (2022).
 ↑ Photon Antibunching in Resonance Fluorescence. H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais and L. Mandel in Phys. Rev. Lett. 39:691 (1977).
 ↑ Nonclassical radiation of a single stored ion. F. Diedrich and H. Walther in Phys. Rev. Lett. 58:203 (1987).
 ↑ A Quantum Dot SinglePhoton Turnstile Device. P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, Lidong Zhang, E. Hu and A. İmamoğlu in Science 290:2282 (2000).
 ↑ Template:Santori01a
 ↑ Nonclassical radiation from a single selfassembled InAs quantum dot. C. Becher, A. Kiraz, P. Michler, A. İmamoğlu, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, Lidong Zhang and E. Hu in Phys. Rev. B 63:121312(R) (2001).
 ↑ Photon antibunching in the fluorescence of a single dye molecule trapped in a solid. T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit and H. Talon in Phys. Rev. Lett. 69:1516 (1992).
 ↑ Template:Brunel99a
 ↑ Template:Lounis00b
 ↑ Stable SolidState Source of Single Photons. C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda and H. Weinfurter in Phys. Rev. Lett. 85:290 (2000).
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