“rediscoveries” are not rare [...] and it would be desirable that journals and referees should do a better job in trying to avoid such a situation, not to mention the prevention of publication of misleading statements and/or wrong results.
We publish essentially in the so-called "scientific literature", which is an unending flow of new results, with daily deliveries. This is the kind of things that is tougher to read than to write.
The correct abbreviation for a journal is ruled by the ISO 4. For instance, the "IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics" gets abbreviated to "IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason."  (that's the journal where was published the 1st experimental demonstration of X waves).
To us, this is the most significant Physics journal. It is not the most prestigious one in terms of impact factor, but this is due to the very high volume processed as compared to journals from the Nature family that are so restrictive as to be biased and biasing, as well as, ultimately, not even serving that well the coverage of the progress of science, which is better reflected in Phys. Rev. Lett.. The journal is affectionately known as PRL.
A short-lived journal with less than 100 articles in the period 1964-1968 which, however, did have time to publish Bell's EPR paper, who chose the journal because it was not covering publication fees but instead paying its authors. The uncommon name of the journal attracted the attention of Clauser who then thought about doing the experiment. 
The open-access, online-only journal in all fields of Physics, published by the IOP. It comes with video abstracts if the authors are so inclined. It is from the DPG and charges a publication fee. It has a nice Focus On series.
The oldest scientific journal in the world, started 1665, which established the two key principles of scientific publishing: 1) scientific priority and 2) peer review.
«The Great God prosper You in the Noble Engagement of Dispersing the true Lustre of his Glorious Works, and the Happy Inventions of obliging Men all over the World, to the General Benefit of All Mankind.»—Dedicatory Epistle by Henry Oldenburg, secretary of the Royal Society.
This is great material: a Physics journal that is not at a Research level, so free of the conventions and terseness required for such a format. However, since Physics is intrinsically a Research topic, the content typically covers original issues. It is probably not a coincidence that an editor of the journal was Edwin F. Taylor, a great popularizer of science, especially when he teamed with Wheeler.
One of the best resources of AJP is their resource letters, whose list is compiled there: AJP Resources Letters.
Last but not least, the arXiv.